Set an image for Media-Sharing stories

Sign In or Register

Media-Sharing stories

Research and Data

World Meteorological Organization is warning that Africa is extremely vulnerable to climate change.

By Judith Akolo

The World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) has warned that Climate change continues to strike Africa with extreme weather events. The WMO Secretary-General, Professor Petteri Taalas in a statement says the devastating drought in the greater horn of Africa, including parts of Kenya, Ethiopia, Sudan, and Somalia is manifestation of the impacts of climate change.

“More than 13 million people are facing severe food insecurity in the horn of Africa and the health of 6 million children from these countries is affected by malnutrition,” said Prof. Taalas who spoke during the conference of heads of National Meteorological and Hydrological (NMHSs) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, says the failure of five rainfall seasons has had devastating effects of crops and this could impact the harvests.

Prof. Taalas told the meeting attended by Heads of National and Meteorological and hydrological Services, regional and global experts in weather, climate and water services with decision-makers in Africa that more than 3 million livestock supporting the livelihoods of pastoral communities have died in the Region.

He told the meeting that is discussing the need for enhancing digital transformation of the Hydro-Meteorological Services in the Region that digital transformation of the NMHSs “will make accessing severe weather warnings and alerts easy,” he said and added that, “Technology transformation will strengthen and modernize NMHSs to perform their public weather functions for the safety of lives and property.”

The Secretary-General noted that the digital transformation of the Meteorological services in Africa will help fasten data transmission speed “and increase the ability to create products and services for realtime, exchange of information, critical for forecasting and warnings of hydro-Meteorological hazards, so as to warn the public and enhance safety.”

In his remarks, the Ethiopian State Minister for Water and Energy, Dr Abraha Adugna, noted that the frequency and intensity of hazards on the continent is significant adding that the impacts are having pressure in socioeconomic sectors.

Dr. Adugna said that the Ethiopia government in partnership with the Ethiopian Meteorological Institute (EMI) has established a modernized network for collecting meteorological data for early warning services in a bid to improve lives and livelihood.


View Full Post and Comments

Drought situation worsening as livestock mortality continues

By Judith Akolo

The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWSNET) is warning that the drought situation is worsening in the pastoral regions of the country. According to FEWSNET, water sources are drying up in the pastoral areas of Kenya following the end of the fifth consecutive rainy season.

In its February report, the Network indicates that the National Drought Management Authority (NDMA) sentinel sites reports that, “livestock body conditions are getting from largely poor to very poor, with livestock deaths due to the drought continuing to be reported.”

The report indicates that people are traveling on average, three to 17 kilometers to access water, while livestock trek 10 to 33 kilometers due to limited water access. “Livestock milk production, a key source of food and income, remains well below normal, with livestock producing from zero to 0.9 liters per household per day,” says the report on the ongoing drought situation in the Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (ASALs) in the country, and adds, “Overall, the ongoing drought continues to severely hinder household access to food and income, resulting in widespread Crisis.”

According to the report, the marginal agricultural areas of Kitui and Meru counties and in parts of Kilifi and Kwale counties, there are reports of crop failure following the below-average October to December short rains.

“Across the marginal agricultural areas, the maize crop is unlikely to reach maturity following the cessation of rainfall in late December and inadequate soil moisture to support growth,” the FEWSNET report warns.

A below-average harvest of green grams, cowpeas, and beans is also underway in most areas, compounded by the early consumption of green produce, especially beans which means that there could be nothing to harvest, “overall, households remain atypically reliant on market food purchases due to a lack of stocks from the below-average March to May 2022 season.”

The danger is that households are now relying on off-own farm activities such as selling charcoal, firewood, and petty trade to earn income, which could further undermine the quest to plant 15 billion trees by the end of 10 years, this as food prices remain high even as household earnings remain limited.


View Full Post and Comments

Biennial Review reports enhancing agriculture transformation and development in Africa

By Judith Akolo

The African Union Commission (AUC) developed a roadmap for the fourth Biennial Review cycle.

The Director of Agriculture and Rural Development at the AUC Dr. Godfrey Bahiigwa says for the continent to realize the envisaged growth in the agriculture sector there is need to critically analyse the previous three Biennial Review cycles.

Speaking when he opened a four-day Training of Trainers meeting on the revised Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Program (CAADP), Biennial Review reporting tools at a Nairobi hotel, Dr. Bahiigwa said that a re-examination of the “difficulties and issues encountered in the coordination of the Biennial Review process, data collection and quality, a review of the new indicators to be added, updating of the Biennial Review reporting tools and the e-BR,” was important as it has now enabled the directorate have a clear direction on how the Biennial Review cycles can be enhanced in order to realise the envisioned goals.

He noted that the Biennial Review Report is a fundamental instrument that shows outcomes of different agricultural efforts and interventions on the continent. “It enables countries to track, measure and report progress achieved against agreed result areas,” said Dr. Bahiigwa.

The Director said that the critical analysis that was conducted was aimed at addressing the challenges “and thereby improve the next BR cycle,” he said and added that, “Before the commencement of the critical analysis, we made sure that the process was inclusive and owned by all our stakeholders.”

Dr. Bahiigwa noted that the addition of ninth technical working group on communication and advocacy on the Biennial Review process will help to enhance an understanding and knowledge on the process itself and how it can be of benefit to the member states.

“The BR process is a learning process and obtaining quality data has remained a top priority,” he said and called for an improvement in communication and advocacy of the overall Biennial Review process. “During this training, assigned experts will provide sessions not only on indicator profiles but also on data quality and on communication and advocacy, to better inform,” he said. 

He told the meeting of Trainer of Trainers drawn from all the regional economic communities on the continent that they will be expected to support the BR process in their Regions and also provide training to member states in order to enable them to carry out the fourth Biennial Review exercise.

Among the areas being addressed in the CAADP Biennial Review and which arise from the Malabo Declaration on Agriculture Transformation include; Halving poverty through agriculture by 2025; Ending Hunger by 2025; Enhancing Investment Finance in Agriculture; Boosting Intra-Africa Trade in Agriculture Commodities and Services; Enhancing Resilience to Climate Variability; Enhancing Mutual Accountability for Actions and Results and Recommitment to the Principles and Values of the CAADP Process.


View Full Post and Comments

Low fertility, over exploitation threatens survival of the donkey

By Judith Akolo

Low fertility rates, minimal attention and management by farmers as well as the recent commercial slaughter of donkeys for export of skin and meat threatens to drive the donkey into extinction.

In his presentation to the 2022 Pan African Donkey conference held in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, the Permanent Secretary in the Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Tixon Nzunda, said that  in Africa, “the donkey as a draught animal, has uses including transportation of goods, farm inputs and outputs, water, firewood and it is also a means of transport in some societies,” he said adding that, “this is so because the donkey is capable of passing through bad terrain where motorised transport like vehicles and motorcycles may not be able to access.”

The Permanent Secretary however noted that despite the importance of the draught animal, the donkey is among the disregarded animals in the livestock sector and today some farmers are hoodwinked into selling at US$ 132 which is equivalent to Tshs 300,000.

Nzunda explained that the reason the Tanzanian government has banned trade in donkeys and their products is because, in 2014 the government issued permits to two companies to start commercial abattoirs for donkeys with conditions that, “they would establish breeding farms, contract donkey farmers, donkey ranches and slaughter of restricted number of donkeys per day while strictly abiding to animal welfare issues,” he said adding that, “Unfortunately, all these conditions were not fulfilled and in 2022, the Government banned of the live donkey trade, donkey slaughter and trade of donkey skin and meat.”

He said that among the challenges facing the productive capacity and impede the harnessing of the full potential of the donkey as draught animal is the inadequate knowledge and skills of farmers on the use of donkeys, poor animal husbandry practices, poor genetic potential and minimal investment in supporting the donkey production.

“Most donkeys in Africa suffer from inbreeding, poor nutrition, inadequate health and veterinary services,” he said adding that donkeys are not given attention they need by the society.

During the ban, the Tanzanian government has put in place measures to help promote production as well as regulate donkeys within the livestock sector by reviewing the Livestock Policy of 2006 to include policy statements that promote donkey production, improve breeding and increase extension services on draught animals; Tanzania is also legislating on the donkey production, trade, slaughter, welfare and general uses of draught animals in the country; “The Ministry is developing guidelines management, breeding, trade, welfare and general production of donkeys.”

Among the key measures is the move by the Ministry of Livestock to initiate donkey identification and registration exercise through use of electronic ear tags, “so as to be able to map the distribution of donkeys in the country,” said Nzunda.

He further explained that the Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries has formulated the five years (2022/23 to 2026/27) Livestock Sector Transformation Plan (LSTP) 2022 which sets out livestock-sector investment areas. Under the plan, the Tanzania government is setting up productive high-quality livestock breeds; water, pasture and animal feeds; animal health; extension; livestock research and training services; value addition of livestock products; and national ranching company done through the public, private sector partnerships.

He appealed to investors to take advantage of the provision in the LSTP and invest in the livestock sector “including donkey production considering the potential for a market for donkeys and donkey products like skin and meat.

The Permanent Secretary appealed to the African Union InterAfrican Bureau for Animal Resources (AU –IBAR), the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) the Animal Welfare and Animal Rights Societies to cooperate and promote donkey production. He urged researchers to carry out more research on the donkey so as to come up with ways improving the donkey fertility in order to increase their numbers.


View Full Post and Comments

Tanzania bans trade in donkey and donkey products

Posted by JUDITH DORA AKOLO on 03 December 2022 4:10 PM CAT

Tanzania bans trade in donkey and donkey products

By Judith Akolo

The Tanzanian government has banned trade in donkeys and donkey products in a bid to save the beast of service from imminent extinction.

Tanzania Prime Minister Kassim Majaliwa Majaliwa says a strategy for ensuring the protection and conservation of the donkey is being established as the ban on the slaughter of donkeys is enforced.

In a speech read for him by the Minister for Livestock and Fisheries Mashimba Ndaki during the 2022 Pan African Donkey Conference Majaliwa said that the donkey is very important to the rural economy of Tanzania hence the government will ensure its protection and preservation.

At meeting held at Kisengan International Conference Center in Dar-es-Salam, Tanzania, the Tanzania Prime Minister called on regional countries to also ban donkey trade in their jurisdictions so as not to create a route through which the trade could continue leading to the extinction of the donkey.

Experts in animal welfare are warning that the multi-billion dollar Ejiao industry that uses donkey skin which is boiled to produce the gelatine used in the production of Ejiao could wipe out the whole donkey population in Africa. It is estimated that the Ejiao industry currently requires approximately 4.8 million donkey skins annually which could wipe out the African total donkey population of 48 million in 10 years.

The Prime Minister further noted that the benefits from the donkey in supporting the rural economy are too great to be left to “those that are over-exploiting the donkey resource,” said Majaliwa adding that already Tanzania has taken measures aimed at protecting the donkey and conserving the beast of service.

He said that while the ban is enforced, among the measures being undertaken are; putting in place a strategy to create public awareness on the donkey as part of the main contributor to the rural economy; putting in place a budget to specifically deal with the production of donkeys; to establish breeding areas for donkey multiplication.

The Tanzania government is also undertaking a census of its livestock to ascertain the exact numbers, which the Prime Minister said is in a bid to ensure they plan well for the sustainable utilization of its resources as well as planning and to put in place measures in promotion of the donkey.

Donkeys are mostly used for transportation of goods to rural markets in Africa, used in fetching water for households as they are well suited to move through rough terrain and they are also hardy animals that can survive harsh environments that are seen in Africa.


View Full Post and Comments

AUC wants the donkey protected for sustainable agriculture on the continent

By Judith Akolo

The African Union Commission says, over exploitation of the donkey that has seen an alarming reduction in the population of the beast of service on the continent, could disrupt efforts aimed at ensuring sustainable agriculture and food systems.

The Commissioner in charge of Agriculture Rural Development, Blue Economy and  Sustainable Environment Josefa Sacko warns that communities living in the fragile environments such as the Arid and Semi-Arid Lands of Africa, which cover about 66% of the continent are at risk of losing a major component of their livelihoods in what they benefit from the donkey.

In a speech read for her by Prof. James Wabacha, an Animal Health Specialist based at the African Union InterAfrican Bureau for Animal Resources (AU-IBAR) at the 2022 Pan African Donkey Conference held in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Amb. Sacko said that in the agriculture sector, “animals are central to production systems and their welfare is a key challenge in the delicate balance between their welfare and the socioeconomic demands.”

In the presentation made at the conference that also called for banning of trade in donkeys, Sacko said that donkeys play a critical role in rural communities for transport, water pulling for construction, farming and waste collection hence central to livelihoods and the communities sustainability and wellbeing.

She noted that even as donkeys “are considered as invisible workers and neglected species,” there is need for development of policies, strategies and legislations to ensure the preservation and conservation of the donkey.

“I encourage Member States and Regional Economic Communities (RECs) to include donkeys as part of livestock in their respective national and regional livestock development  components of their National Agriculture Investment Plans (NAIPs) and their regional agriculture investment plans (RAIP) as well  as the national and regional  CAADP compacts,” she advised.

While giving grim statistics, Sacko explained that 40% of the gross domestic product in the agriculture sector comes from livestock resources, on a continent in which 70% of the people live below the poverty line. She further averred that 66% of Africa is arid or semi-arid with over 300 million people in sub-Saharan Africa living in the ASALs and are wholly dependent on the donkey for “transporting water to the homesteads, goods to the market and even building materials to the new environments in search of pasture and water for the other animals,” she added, “people living in ASALs have access to less that 1000 meters cubed of water per capita per year hence benefit from the donkey, as the animal plays a crucial role in collecting water for livestock and families in these dry areas.”

Saying that recent times have seen the deterioration and degradation of the environment leading to water stress with more people relying on fetching water for survival, “the donkey is a critical part of their lives.”

Sacko warned that if the donkey population continues to be decimated for export for their skin, women and children in the arid and semi arid lands “may have to take over the burden of carrying the water for the livestock and the family and where the family is too poor to afford motorized transport, the women and children will have to take over the burden of carrying their goods and trek on foot where they relied on the donkeys.”

Sacko expressed worry that disregard for animal welfare often leads to poor animal health and poor quality or contaminated animal-based food products, with resulting economic losses.

She called for the need to increased recognition of the link between animal welfare, productivity, incomes and livelihoods in subsistence and small scale production systems which are typical of the developing world.

“Concern for animal welfare is therefore intrinsically a concern for human wellbeing and animal productivity and entails an inclusive approach within the animal resource sector,” she said.

She appealed to member states of the Africa Union to embrace sustainable development and utilisation of animal resources with the consideration of animal welfare principles in order to realize the aspirations of the continental frameworks and agendas including the realization of the transformation of Agriculture in line with the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Program (CAADP), Malabo commitments as well as Agenda 2063 of the Africa We Want of the Africa Union.


View Full Post and Comments

Knowledge management is key to leveraging the agriculture sector in Africa

By Judith Akolo

Experts in food nutrition and knowledge management are saying that Africa is dependent on agriculture for its economic sustainability, hence there is need to ensure that the sector thrives.

The director of the Regional Centre against Hunger and Malnutrition (CERFAM) based in Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire, Patrick Texeira, avers that knowledge generation, sharing and overall, knowledge Management is key to Africa’s development.

He says that Africa has a plethora of good practices and innovations that have generated good results in addressing food insecurity and malnutrition, hence the need to make good practices readily available and accessible through their identification, documentation, replication, so as to create greater impact on agricultural development, food security and nutrition

Texeira notes that if the agriculture sector on the continent thrives it is two to four times more effective in the reduction of poverty, in comparison to other sectors.

“It is unfortunate, the continent is not on the right track to achieving goals of Agenda 2063, the Malabo Declaration, or the Sustainable Development (SDG) agenda,” he says and adds, “in fact projections by the UN, indicate that Africa will not be able to feed 60% of its population by 2025,” he adds, yet the agricultural economy is the main source of income for more than 33 million smallholder farmers in Africa.

Texeira says smallholder farmers mostly produce the staple food crops, “and even though, producing nearly 70% of the global food supply, they are amongst those left the most food insecure,” he told the 18th Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme Partnership Platform (CAADP PP) held via webinar.

While noting that on average, growth in the agriculture sector has shown to be two to four times more effective in the reduction of poverty, in comparison to other sectors, Texeira said that there is need for “the transformative power of knowledge management to leverage agriculture and food systems good practices and evidence-based solutions to end hunger and malnutrition in Africa.”

In his presentation, “The transformative power of Knowledge Management to leverage Agriculture and Food Systems good practices and evidence-based solutions to end hunger and malnutrition in Africa” Texeira said that knowledge management can support the achievement of CAADP as well as the Malabo Policy Learning Event (MAPLE) commitment through the promotion of good practices by: offering a space to create synergies with partners from other sectors, and, by presenting digital platforms which can support identification, dissemination, replication, and scaling-up of these good practices, “all in the hopes to learn from each other in order to build on the past successes and to excel towards future realisations,” he said.

The head of CERFAM which is Africa's leading hub for promoting good practices to end hunger, achieve food security, improve nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture, noted that knowledge management can create an enabling environment for nutrition sensitive-agricultural activities and investment within the food-system, so as to improve food security and nutrition in Africa.

While agriculture sector has shown to be two to four times more effective in the reduction of poverty, in comparison to other sectors, “it is unfortunate, the continent is not on the right track to achieving goals of Agenda 2063, the Malabo Declaration, or the Sustainable Development (SDG) agenda,” he says and adds, “in fact projections by the UN, indicate that Africa will not be able to feed 60% of its population by 2025.”

He notes that the causes of hunger and malnutrition on the continent are not only due to lack of access to the right quantities but also the lack of access to quality food, “it is not only a question of increasing food production to ensure food security, but equally important is the types of foods consumed and the micronutrients they bear, so to also ensure nutrition security,” he advises.

He calls for agricultural transformation in order to provide for food, that is affordable, nutritious, healthy, and of quality, “thus providing food and nutrition security,” hence the need to design policies that are nutrition-sensitive.


View Full Post and Comments

Anglican Archbishop Dr. Jackson Ole Sapit calls for a ban on donkey trade

By Judith Akolo

The Anglican Church of Kenya, Archbishop of the Right Reverend Dr. Jackson Ole Sapit who spoke at the Pan African Donkey Conference, called for an end to trade in donkeys saying that the donkey was never meant for trade, but as a mode of transport to aid humanity.

Noting that the origin of the donkey is in Africa in Ethiopia and Somalia, Dr. Ole Sapit said that the trade and practice of eating donkey meat is alien to Africa because the donkey was never meant for food in Africa.

“Man was given a special mandate to have dominion and as a steward in the garden and not to deplete God’s creation but to make them thrive,” said Archbishop Ole Sapit and added, “donkeys now in Africa and the future depend on what we as human beings are going to do about them, they are entirely in our hands, we have capacity to destroy and extinct them but we also have the capacity to preserve them and protect them for posterity.”

Noting that the donkey’s home is Africa having been first domesticated in Ethiopia and present day Somalia as an animal to aid humankind, the Primate said that the donkey is key to Africa’s rural economy as it is mostly used in transportation goods to the markets for trade, “it helps human beings in times of distress, when they are running away from calamities including drought, by carrying the luggage through difficult terrains.”

At the meeting held at Kisenga Conference Center in Dar es Salaam, the Archbishop said that the donkey has been a fundamental part of the economy of humankind right from creation “of humanity, in the economy of the world and even today our rural economy depends on the donkey,” said Dr. Ole Sapit and added, “the donkey to rural Maasailand was used to draw water and take it home, to carry wares to the market as well as carry building materials for the construction of dwelling places.”

Dr. Ole Sapit said that introduction of a market for slaughtering donkeys in Africa, is foreign to the African culture, “it is not part of us, we were not given the donkey to eat as we were given other animals to use as food,” he said, and added, “we were given the donkey to aid humankind how then can we afford to extinct the only animal whose purpose is to aid us”? he wondered.


View Full Post and Comments

AU-IBAR: High demand for donkey skin is driving the donkey into extinction

By Judith Akolo

The African Union Inter-African Bureau for Animal Resources (AU-IBAR) Director Dr. Nick Nwankpa is warning that the rising demand for donkey skin on the global market could drive the beast of burden into extinction.

Speaking at the 2022 Pan African Donkey conference that began today in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, with the theme, “Donkeys now in Africa and to the Future” Dr. Nwankpa said that the donkey supports livelihoods and generate income for mostly the low income households on the continent, “despite this valid services, the donkey is viewed as a poor man’s resource,” said Dr. Nwankpa.

The AU-IBAR Director raised concern that the donkey is neglected in the livestock conservation and development policies in most African countries, he called for an urgent need to include donkeys in animal resources and food security frameworks, “particularly as their numbers are increasingly threatened by the global donkey skin trade,” he warned.

Dr. Nwankpa notes that AU-IBAR as the unique specialized technical agency of the African Union Commission (AUC) is charged with coordinating the development and the utilization of animal resources for the wellbeing of African citizens “has come together with Brooke and other partners,  to convene  this conference to arouse Africa to the threats facing the donkey population on the continent,” he said and added, “It is an opportunity for all of us to arrive at a common position on the exploitation of the donkey in the continent.

Adding that the decision from the 2022 Pan African Donkey Conference will guide the policies and strategies to preserve the donkey as a critical resource for the African Community.

He lauded the involvement of various stakeholders and the strategic partnership in advancing animal welfare agenda and the commitments to improve the livelihoods of the African Community “that has led to the development and endorsement of the Animal Welfare Strategy for Africa by AUC Head States and Summit in February 2018 and the establishment and the operationalization of the Africa Platform for Animal Welfare (APAW) whose secretariat is hosted at AU-IBAR,” said Dr. Nwankpa.

The Regional Director, Brooke East Africa Dr. Raphael Kinoti while noting that there are 47 million donkeys in the world said that the donkey is an important animal to especially the lower rungs of the population in Africa with some societies having a saying that, “a woman without a donkey becomes the donkey herself,”

The Brooke Ethiopia Programme Manager Dr. Yohannes Kassim warned that the donkey population in Africa is under threat due to the high demand for Ejiao or gelatine developed from donkey hide, that used as an ingredient in the traditional medicine of China, “it is estimated that the Ejiao industry currently requires approximately 4.8 million donkey skins annually which could wipe out the African total donkey population of 48 million is appropriate measures are not taken by all stakeholders,” said Kassim.


View Full Post and Comments

Experts warn that meat could soon be out of the menu due to climate change  

By Judith Akolo

As the impacts of climate change continue to be felt across the world, pressure on water supply and pasture for livestock is becoming evident. Experts now say meat could soon be out of the menu with the fall back position being a shift in culinary tastes to insect consumption. 

Speaking during the 13th Africa Day for Food and Nutrition Security, a Senior Scientist at the International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology Dr. Chrysantus Mbi Tanga called for the inclusing of insects in the African food systems.

Dr. Tanga who is also the Head of Insects for Food and Other User Progrmas at ICIPE  posited that owing to the challenges arising from climate change coupled by dwindling water and pasture for livestock, "insects remain the best source and alternative for meat since the current meat production models are not sustainable."

During the meeting also attended by nutrition experts drawn from across the continent as well as policy planners, Dr. Tanga said that insects are also seen to offer great potential for animal feed and organic fertilizer production. An expanded use of insects for livestock feed has the potential to release for human consumption, as well as reduce the import bill for soya and soya based edible oils.

They are vouching for utilizing indigenous knowlege on edible insects in order to encourage the integration of insects into the food systems, as a source of food in the National Agriculture and Food Security Investment Plan (NAIPs).

"Concerted efforts are needed to promote the use of insects in ways that are culturally acceptable," says a communique released at the end of the ADFN and adds, "effort should be made to include rebranding insects and portraying them in a positive light."

 Among issues of discussion at the ADNS was the need for social protection in order to enhance the resilience of vulnerable social groups. This will also help in ensuring that ecosystems are protected from encroachment as people struggle to survive on limited resources.

The experts note that nutrition and social protection are interlinked because "malnutrition tends to accentuate vulnerabilities and perpetuates poverty, which then calls for more social protection interventions that help in fighting it by reaching underserved populations, addressing immediate needs and building resilience."

The experts are calling on African governments to ensure that when designing social protection interventions, they also contextualize the local realities, since when the main focus of social protection programmes zeroes on poverty eradication, "they often fail to adopt a holistic approach considering poverty is multifaceted, and can be multi-layered." 

They aver that since the poor are not a homogeneous population, and there is the need to design specific social protection instruments that target and address specific needs, noting that income security does not equate to food security and food security does not equate to nutrition security. "It is, therefore, recommended that countries build social protection systems that are peoplecentred, and food security and nutrition sensitive."

View Full Post and Comments

17 results found